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RIGHT-OF-WAY PERMIT APPLICATION

AND

CONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES



February, 1999


Table of Contents

  1. GENERAL
    1. Purpose
    2. Introduction
    3. Entities Included Under These Guidelines
    4. Definitions and Abbreviations
    5. Specific Conditions
      1. Traffic Control Plans
      2. Traffic Flow During Peak Hours
      3. End of Day Lane Conditions
      4. Inspection Requests
      5. Minimum Concrete Removals/Replacements
      6. Road Closures
    6. Permit Fees
    7. Insurance Requirements
      1. Commercial General Liability
      2. Automobile Liability
      3. Terms of Insurance

  2. PERMIT APPLICATION PROCESS
    1. Obtain Blank Permit Form
    2. Submission of Plans
    3. Submission of Traffic Control Plan
    4. Payment of Fees
    5. Review of Submittals
    6. Approval of Submittals
    7. Issuance of Permit
    8. Other Permits

  3. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
    1. General Conditions
      1. Protection of Existing Improvements
      2. Temporary Surfaces Required
      3. Pavement Patches
      4. Work to be Done in Expedient Manner
      5. Removal and Replacement of Unsatisfactory Work
    2. Excavation
    3. Blasting
    4. Equipment
    5. Dewatering
    6. Removals
      1. Streets, Paved
      2. Streets, Gravel
      3. Concrete Curb, Gutter and Sidewalk
    7. Backfill
      1. Flowable-Fill
      2. Conventional Backfill (Other Thank Flowable Fill)
      3. Compaction Testing Requirements
      4. Embankment and Slopes
    8. Restoration
      1. Bore Holes - Vertical and Horizontal
      2. Subgrade
      3. Asphalt Surfacing
      4. Concrete Surfacing and Patching
      5. Joint Filling

  4. DEVELOPING A "QUALITY" APPROACH TO STREET REPAIRS
    1. General
    2. Appearance
    3. Rideability
    4. Pavement Management
    5. Future Maintenance

  5. TESTING
    1. Description
    2. Testing Frequencies

  6. INSPECTION

Appendix A Local Entity Contact Person

Appendix B Sample Permit

Appendix C Larimer County Fee Schedule


  1. GENERAL

    1. Purpose

      The purposes of these Guidelines are to:

      • instruct contractors on how to prepare and submit plans and other documentation for Right-of-Way Permits;
      • describe processes, policies and requirements; and
      • define roles and responsibilities of all parties.

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    2. Introduction

      All contractors and public utility agencies must obtain a Right-of-Way Permit for any work performed within the public rights-of-way of the Larimer County entities listed below. The storage of materials and equipment within the public rights-of-way also requires a Permit.

      To preserve the original investment of the street and roadway systems within Larimer County, minimize the disruption and maximize the safety to the traveling public caused by construction, and reduce future maintenance problems, it is the policy of the Local Entities within Larimer County to require the installation of new utilities across existing streets be done by boring or tunneling. Open cutting of existing streets for the installation of new utilities will be permitted only when it can be proven it is not possible to use boring or tunneling techniques.

      Applicants for Right-of-Way Permits must plan for adequate time for review and approval by the affected Local Entity and any other involved agencies. Generally, the greater the scope of work, the longer the permit review and approval process will take.

      NOTE: EACH LOCAL ENTITY RESERVES THE RIGHT TO VARY FROM THESE STANDARDS BASED UPON CONDITIONS SPECIFIC TO THE LOCATION WHERE THE WORK WILL OCCUR. THE "SPECIAL CONDITIONS" SECTION OF THE PERMIT WILL OUTLINE ANY VARIATIONS FROM THE COUNTY-WIDE SPECIFICATIONS.

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    3. Applicability

      These Guidelines shall apply within the unincorporated area of Larimer County.

      The City of Fort Collins and the Town of Estes Park have adopted guidelines which are substantially similar to these Guidelines.

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    4. Definitions and Abbreviations

      Wherever the following words, phrases, or abbreviations appear in these standards, they shall have the following meanings:

      AS-CONSTRUCTED DRAWINGS - a set of construction drawings that has been red-penciled or otherwise marked to record all changes which have occurred during the construction.

      CDOT - Colorado Department of Transportation.

      CODE - shall mean the latest official adopted ordinances, policies codes and/or regulations of Larimer County, the cities of Fort Collins and Loveland, and the towns of Berthoud and Estes Park, Colorado.

      CONTRACTOR - shall mean a person, partnership or corporation duly bonded, licensed and insured to perform work within public rights-of-way in the Local Entity.

      DAYS - intended as calendar days and not normal working days unless stipulated as working days.

      DRIVEWAY, RURAL - that portion of gravel or hard surfaced roadway from the street, roadway or alley to the private property line to gain access to the private property.

      DRIVEWAY, URBAN - that portion of portland cement concrete or asphalt extending from the street gutter lip to the property line for the full width of access from the public right-of-way to the private property.

      ENGINEER - shall mean the Larimer County Engineer, the City Engineers for the cities of Fort Collins, Loveland, and the Towns of Berthoud and Estes Park, Colorado, or their authorized representatives acting on behalf of the entity.

      ENGINEERING PLANS - drawings, plans, profiles, cross sections and other required details for the construction of public or private improvements within the public rights-of-way or public easements, conforming with the Local Entities' applicable improvement standards.

      FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION - the objective grouping of roads, streets and highways into integrated systems, each ranked by their relative importance to the general welfare, the motorists and land use.

      IMPROVEMENT STANDARDS - A set of regulations established by each Local Entity setting forth the details, specifications, instructions, and procedures to be followed in the planning, design, installation and construction of public or private improvements within the public rights-of-way or public easements.

      INSPECTOR - shall mean an authorized representative of the Engineer assigned to make inspections for contract performances, standards and contract compliance.

      LOCAL ENTITY - shall mean unincorporated Larimer County, the Cities of Fort Collins, and Loveland, and the Towns of Berthoud and Estes Park, Colorado.

      MAY - a permissive condition. No requirement for design or application is intended.

      MUTCD- Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (Federal Highway Administration).

      OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

      RIGHT-OF-WAY (R.O.W.) - any strip or area of land, including surface, overhead, or underground, granted by deed, easement, dedication, prescription or lease, for construction and maintenance according to designated use, such as for streets and highways, drainage ditches, irrigation canals, etc.

      RIGHT-OF-WAY PERMIT - An official document issued by one of the Local Entities authorizing the performance of a specified activity or work within public rights-of-way and public easements by a person, contractor, company, firm, corporation, or public utility.

      SHALL - a mandatory condition. Where certain requirements in the design or application are described with the "shall" stipulation, it is mandatory that these requirements be met.

      SHOULD - an advisory condition. Where the word "should" is used, it is considered to be advisable usage, recommended but not mandatory. Deviations may be allowed when reasons are given which show intent of the standard is met.

      STREET - a general term denoting a public way for purposes of vehicular, pedestrian and bicycle travel ways, including the entire area within the right-of-way (includes alleyways). Any constructed facility within the right-of-way.

      TRAFFIC CONTROL SUPERVISOR (TCS) - a well trained and knowledgeable individual assigned the responsibility for traffic control devices at worksites. The TCS must be ATSSA (American Traffic Safety Services Association) or CCA (Colorado Contractor's Association) certified.

      TRAFFIC ENGINEER - shall mean the Traffic Engineer or person responsible for monitoring traffic in the Local Entity.

      UNCC - Utility Notification Center of Colorado (commonly referred to as "One Call"). Statewide clearinghouse for coordinating and scheduling utility locates. Most utilities, both public and private, utilize this service. Toll-free phone number for UNCC is 1-800-922-1987.

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    5. Specific Conditions

      1. Traffic Control Plans

        A Traffic Control Plan (TCP) shall be submitted prior to or submitted with the permit application for all proposed work in/on arterial and collector streets for approval by the Traffic Engineer. Work in/on residential streets typically do not need a separate TCP but all signs, barricades and other necessary traffic control devices shall be placed in accordance with the MUTCD, Part VI. All the work described above shall be performed by a TCS.

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      2. Traffic Flow During Peak Hours

        No interference with traffic flow on arterial or collector streets shall be permitted during the hours of 7:00 a.m. to 8:30 a.m. or from 4:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. unless authorized in writing by the Traffic Engineer.

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      3. End of Day Lane Conditions

        ASPHALT STREET - When work is stopped for the day, all lanes of an arterial or collector street shall be opened to traffic unless approved by the Engineer. A traffic lane shall be considered satisfactorily open only if it is paved with hot or cold mix asphalt paving, except when the local jurisdiction allows an alternate temporary surface at its discretion.

        CONCRETE STREET - When work is stopped for the day, all lanes of an arterial or collector street shall be opened for traffic. A traffic lane shall be considered satisfactorily open only if it is surfaced with a temporary asphalt surface. In the event the street surface has been replaced in the same day as the excavation was made, the repaired areas should be properly barricaded to protect the concrete during the curing stage.

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      4. Inspection Requests

        It shall be the responsibility of the person performing the work authorized by the permit to notify the Engineer or his authorized representatives that such work is ready for inspection. The Engineer requires that every request for inspection be received at least twenty-four (24) hours before such inspection is desired. Such requests may be in writing or by telephoning or faxing the Engineer.

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      5. Minimum Concrete Removals/Replacements

        Removal and replacement shall be to existing joints.

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      6. Road Closures

        Road closures will only be allowed at the approval of the Engineer.

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    6. Permit Fees

      A complete fee schedule for Larimer County can be found in Appendix C. The Local Entities' permit fees are established under appropriate enabling resolutions and/or ordinances and are subject to change periodically and may not be reflected in Appendix C. For current fee information please contact the Local Entity Contact Person in Appendix A.

      An additional fee may be charged for any excavation work that may affect the accuracy of the Local Entities' Survey Monumentation System.

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    7. Insurance Requirements

      Prior to commencement of any work, contractor shall forward Certificates of Insurance to Larimer County % Risk Management, P O Box 1190, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522. The insurance required shall be procured and maintained for the duration of the Contract and shall be written for not less than the following amounts, or greater if required by law.

      1. Comprehensive General Liability on an Occurrence Form (including Premises Operations; Independent Contractors; Products & Completed Operations; Broad Form Property Damage as appropriate.)

        1. Bodily Injury: $1,000,000 Aggregate/$500,000 Each Occurrence
        2. Property Damage: $1,000,000 Aggregate/$500,000 Each Occurrence
        3. Products and Completed Operations to be maintained for one year after final payment. Contractor shall continue to provide evidence of such coverage to the County on an annual basis during the aforementioned period. (as appropriate)
        4. Contractor agrees that such insurance is primary.

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      2. Comprehensive Automobile Liability (Owned, non-owned, hired). Statutory Colorado Personal Injury Protection and Statutory Colorado Uninsured/Underinsured Motorist Liability Coverages:

        Bodily Injury & Property Damage $1,000,000 Combined Single Limit

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      3. All insurance policies shall include Larimer County and its elected officials and employees as additional insureds as their interests may appear.

      4. The County reserves the right to reject any insurer it deems not financially acceptable by insurance industry standards. Property and Liability Insurance Companies shall be licensed to do business in Colorado and shall have an AM Best rating of not less than B+ and/or VII.

      5. Certificates of insurance on all policies shall list Larimer County, % Risk Management, P O Box 1190, Fort Collins, Colorado as certificate holder.

      6. Certificates of insurance on all policies shall give the County written notice of not less than thirty (30) days prior to cancellation or change in coverage.

      ANY DEVIATIONS FROM THE STANDARDS GIVEN ABOVE MUST BE APPROVED BY THE LARIMER COUNTY RISK MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT.

      CAN BE FAXED TO: RISK MANAGEMENT AT FAX # (970) 498-7365 OR E-MAILED TO: houdasd@co.larimer.co.us FOLLOWED WITH HARD COPY MAILED TO: Larimer County % Risk Management, P O Box 1190, Fort Collins, CO 80522-1190

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  2. PERMIT APPLICATION PROCESS

    1. Obtain Blank Permit Form

      Blank permit forms can be obtained from each respective Local Entity as shown in Appendix A. Fill out the form completely and accurately. Be sure to sign and date the form. Turn in the completed form, together with all required submittals and all copies, to the appropriate Local Entity a minimum of forty (40) work hours (not including Saturdays and Sundays) prior to the proposed start of work.

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    2. Submission of Plans

      Drawings or plans that clearly indicate the proposed work must be attached to the permit application. These drawings must be to a working scale and must show position and location of work, street/road names/numbers, widths of streets, property lines, topographic and man-made features, existing drainage patterns, etc. Plans shall show the relative position of proposed work to existing utilities and existing improvements and shall be drawn to a scale of one (1) inch = fifty (50) feet or larger and shall include a north reference.

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    3. Submission of Traffic Control Plans

      Traffic Control Plans shall show in detail the proposed work area location and the traffic control devices being proposed. Such plan shall be on paper at least 8 1/2 inches by 11 inches and may be faxed, mailed or brought to the office of the Local Entity a minimum of forty (40) work hours prior to issuance the Permit. Traffic Control Plans may require more detail than normal at the discretion of the Traffic Engineer due to unique or unusual conditions. Traffic control shall also include construction traffic routing requirements.

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    4. Payment of Fee

      Acceptable methods of payment and payees have been established by each Local Entity. The Local Entity Contact Person, as identified in Appendix A, will provide Applicants with the appropriate permit fee and method of payment.

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    5. Review of Submittals

      The completed submittals will be reviewed by the affected Local Entity. If additional information is needed, the Applicant will be contacted. The Local Entity will check to make certain that the Applicant has provided the required bond. license and insurance certificates.

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    6. Approval of Submittals

      Once the permit form and all required submittals have been reviewed and found to be complete, the Permit may be approved by the Local Entity.

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    7. Issuance of Permit

      The approved Permit is issued to the Applicant. Any modifications to the approved permit including any schedule or scope changes must be submitted in writing to the Local Entity for their review and approval. The Applicant is solely responsible for all work for a period of two (2) years following the project completion.

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    8. Other Permits

      Permit Applicants are responsible for obtaining separate permits or permission as may be required. Examples may be when work is proposed within state highway, railroad or irrigation company right-of-ways, or private property.

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  3. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

    1. General Conditions

      The following general conditions apply to all work done within the public rights-of-way such as utility line installation or repairs performed by any contractor or utility department, public or private.

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      1. Protection of Existing Improvements

        1. The Contractor shall at all times take proper precautions and be responsible for the protection of existing street and alley surfaces, driveway culverts, street intersection culverts or aprons, irrigation systems, mail boxes, driveway approaches, curb, gutter and sidewalks and all other identifiable installations that may be encountered during construction.

        2. The Contractor shall at all times take proper precautions for the protection of existing utilities, the presence of which are known or can be determined by field locations of the utility companies. The Contractor shall contact the UNCC (One Call) at 1-800-922-1987 for utility locates a minimum of two (2) working days prior to his proposed start of work.

        3. Existing improvements to adjacent property such as landscaping, fencing, utility services, driveway surfaces, etc., that are not to be removed shall be protected from injury or damage resulting from the Contractor's operations.

        4. The Contractor shall at all times take proper precautions for the protection of property pins/corners and survey control monuments encountered during construction. Any damaged or disturbed survey markers shall be replaced by a registered land surveyor at the Contractor's expense.

        5. The repair of any damaged improvements as described above shall be the responsibility of the permit holder.

        6. The Contractor shall make adequate provisions to assure that traffic and adjacent property owners experience a minimum of inconvenience

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      2. Temporary Surfaces Required

        When the final surface is not immediately installed, it shall be necessary to place a temporary asphalt surface on any street cut opening. The temporary surface installation and maintenance shall be the responsibility of the Permittee until the permanent surface is completed and accepted. It shall be either a hot mix or cold mix paving material. Temporary surfaces shall be compacted, rolled smooth and sealed to prevent degradation of the repair and existing structures during the temporary period. Permanent patching shall occur within two (2) weeks except as outlined by the Local Entity in the Permit.

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      3. Pavement Patches

        All permanent pavement patches and repairs shall be made with "in kind" materials. For example, concrete patches in concrete surfaces, full depth asphalt patches with full depth asphalt, concrete pavement with asphalt overlay patches will be expected in permanent "overlaid" concrete streets, etc. In no case is there to be an asphalt patch in concrete streets or concrete patch in asphalt streets. Any repair not meeting these requirements will be removed and replaced by the Contractor at his expense. Refer to Section 4 for details.

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      4. Work to be Done in Expedient Manner

        All work shall be done in an expedient manner. Repairs shall be made as rapidly as is consistent with high quality workmanship and materials. Use of fast setting concrete and similar techniques are encouraged whenever possible without sacrificing the quality of repair. Completion of the work including replacement of pavement and cleanup shall normally be accomplished within two (2) weeks after the repair work or activity involving the cut is done. Extension of time for completion shall be with the written approval of the Engineer. If the repairs are not completed in the allotted time, the Local Entity has the right to repair the street at the Contractor's expense.

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      5. Removal and Replacement of Unsatisfactory Work

        Removal and replacement of unsatisfactory work shall be completed within fifteen (15) days of written notification of the deficiency unless deemed an emergency requiring immediate action. In the event the replacement work has not been completed, the Local Entity will take action upon the Contractor's bond to cover all related costs.

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    2. Excavation

      1. Excavation shall consist of removal of all material necessary for the construction of the roadway section to the subgrade elevation, line, and grade shown on the plans or as specified in the contract documents. Unacceptable material defined as any earthen material containing vegetable or organic silt, topsoil, frozen material, trees, stumps, certain man-made deposits, or industrial waste, sludge or landfill, or other undesirable materials will be categorized as "unclassified excavation" and removed from the site and disposed of in accordance with applicable Local Entity, State and Federal requirements. All tree stumps and roots shall be removed to a minimum of two (2) feet below subgrade. Unclassified excavation includes any and all earthen materials encountered, including rocks and boulders measuring less than one-half cubic yard in volume, during construction.

      2. Any work on trees, including roots, must be reviewed by the Local entity.

      3. Excavation shall be performed in a careful and orderly manner with due consideration given to protection of adjoining property, the public and workmen. Any damage to streets, parking lots, utilities, irrigation systems, plants, trees, building or structures or private property, or the bench marks and construction staking due to the negligence of the Contractor, shall be repaired and restored to its original conditions by the Contractor at his expense. Those areas that are to be saved will be clearly fenced off by the Contractor per the owner's instructions and it will be the Contractor's responsibility to ensure that these areas are not damaged during the construction process. Following completion of construction, should any of these trees, shrubs or irrigation facilities, etc. require replacement, it shall be done at the Contractor's expense.

      4. All materials determined acceptable by the Engineer acquired from roadway excavations may be used for embankment fill and backfill as needed. The entire area in the vicinity of the construction where excavation and filling has been performed shall be raked clean of all trash, wood forms, and debris, after completion of the work with no additional cost to the Owner. Material removed in excavation and not acceptable or not required for embankment fill of backfill shall be disposed of by the Contractor. It shall not be wasted on private property without written permission of the property owner. Waste banks shall be left with reasonable smooth and regular surfaces.

      5. The construction of any repair activity within the street or alley rights-of-way shall be accomplished by open cut, jacking, boring, tunneling or a combination of these methods as approved by the permit. The Engineer shall approve any change from the approved permit.

      6. Trenches shall be excavated along the lines and grades established and in no case shall be more than two hundred (200) feet in length, or be trenched or backfilled in non-continuous sections unless approved by the Engineer. Failure by the Contractor to comply with these requirements may result in an order to stop the excavation in progress until compliance has been achieved.

      7. All excavated material shall be stockpiled in a manner that does not endanger the work or workers and that does not obstruct sidewalks, streets and driveways. No stockpiled materials shall be allowed on the asphalt surface or adjacent walkways. The work shall be done in a manner that will minimize interference with traffic and/or drainage of the street. The Contractor at the end of each day shall barricade all excavations and ditch lines, remove excess material from travel ways, and thoroughly clean all street, alleys and sidewalks affected by the excavation. If it becomes necessary to accomplish this, all streets, alleys (if asphalt or concrete) and sidewalks shall be swept or washed as required by the Engineer.

      8. Materials encountered during excavation such as rubbish, organic, or frozen material, and any other material that is not satisfactory for use as backfill in the opinion of the Engineer, shall be removed from the site and disposed of daily by the Contractor at his expense. Stones, concrete or asphalt chunks larger than six (6) inches or frozen material shall be considered unsatisfactory backfill and removed by the Contractor.

      9. All excavation, shoring and trenching, and the like shall comply with OSHA's "Construction Industry Standards" as well as all applicable Federal and State regulations.

      10. No tracked vehicles shall be allowed on asphalt or concrete unless approved by the Engineer.

      11. Crossings under sidewalks or curbs may be made by tunneling only when approved by the Engineer. If the Contractor elects to remove a portion of the sidewalk or curb, the applicable Local Entity standards shall be followed.

      12. Grading shall be done as necessary to prevent surface water from entering the excavation; any other water accumulation therein shall be promptly removed. Surface drainage, driveways, fire hydrants, manholes, water valves, etc. of adjoining areas shall be unobstructed.

      13. When soft or unstable material or rock is encountered in the trench subgrade that will not uniformly support the pipe, such material shall be excavated to additional depths directed by the Engineer and backfilled with Type B material, as described in Subsection G, Part 2.

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    3. Blasting

      The Contractor's blasting procedures shall conform to Federal, State, and local ordinances. The Contractor shall acquire all required permits prior to the start of blasting.

      Blasting for excavation will be permitted only after securing the approval of the Engineer. The Engineer will fix the hours of blasting. The Contractor shall use the utmost care to protect life and property. All explosives shall be safely and securely stored in compliance with local laws and ordinances, and all storage places shall be clearly marker "Dangerous Explosives". No explosives shall be left unprotected where they could endanger life or property

      When blasting in trenches, the Contractor shall cover the area to be shot with earth backfill or approved blasting mats. Prior to blasting, the Contractor shall station flaggers and provide signals of danger in suitable places to warn people and stop vehicles. The Contractor shall be responsible for all damage to property and injury to persons resulting from blasting or accidental explosions that may occur in connection with the use of explosives.

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    4. Equipment

      1. The use of trench digging equipment will be permitted in places where its operation will not cause damage to existing structures or features, in which case hand methods shall be employed.

      2. No tracked vehicles shall be permitted on streets unless approved by the Engineer. When tracked vehicles are allowed, existing facilities will be restored to original condition at the Contractor's expense.

      3. Construction equipment and material delivery routing will be made a condition of the Permit.

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    5. Dewatering

      Where ground water is encountered in the excavation, it shall be removed to avoid interfering with the work. It is the Contractor's responsibility to comply with all Federal, State and local permitting requirements prior to beginning any dewatering operations.

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    6. Removals

      1. Streets, Paved

        Bituminous pavement shall be saw cut to clean, straight lines and should be perpendicular or parallel to the flow of traffic. (See Section 4(B)(2)(a))

        In existing pavement, all excavations within 36" of the edge of the asphalt shall require removal and replacement from the edge of asphalt to the excavation edge.

        Concrete pavement, cross pans, driveways, streets and alleys shall be removed to neatly sawed edges cut to full depth.

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      2. Streets, Gravel

        When trenches are excavated in streets or alleys which have only a gravel surface, the Contractor shall replace such surfacing on a satisfactory compacted backfill with gravel conforming to CDOT Class 5 or Class 6 aggregate base course. Gravel replacement shall be one (1) inch greater in depth to that which originally existed, but not less than four (4) inches. The surface shall conform to the original street grade. Where the completed surface settles, additional gravel base shall be placed and compacted by the Contractor immediately after being notified by the Local Entity, to restore the roadbed surface to finished grade.

        Some streets may have been treated with a special surface treatment to control dust and/or bind the aggregates together. In these cases the Contractor is responsible for installing the gravel surface in the same manner as what was existing. Such surface treatments shall be of the same chemical composition as what existed prior to the excavation work. The Engineer shall note on the permit the surface treatment that will be required.

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      3. Concrete Curb, Gutter and Sidewalk

        Concrete shall be removed to neatly sawed edges to full depth for sidewalks and curb and gutter and shall be saw cut in straight lines either parallel to the curb or perpendicular to the alignment of the sidewalk or curb. Any removal shall be done to the nearest joint. Replaced sections may require doweling connections if required by the Engineer.

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    7. Backfill

      1. Flowable-Fill

        FLOWABLE-FILL WILL BE REQUIRED AS UTILITY TRENCH BACKFILL FOR ALL TRENCHES UNLESS OTHERWISE APPROVED BY THE ENGINEER. Refer to Section 5 for compaction requirements. This requirement applies to all pavement and gravel locations. Flowable-fill vibration may be required.

        The recommended mix for flowable-fill is shown below. Concrete backfill will not be allowed within the public right-of-way. Flash-fill may be used if approved by the Engineer. Refer to CDOT specification 206.02.

        INGREDIENTS POUNDS/CUBIC YARD
        Cement 42 (0.47 sack)
        Water 235 (39 gallons or as needed)
        Coarse Aggregate (Size No. 57) 1700
        Sand (ASTM C-33) 1845

        The maximum desired 28-day strength is 60 psi. The above combination of material, or an equivalent, may be used to obtain the desired "flowable-fill".

        Flowable-fill or flash-fill shall be prohibited as a temporary or permanent street surface. Trenches shall initially be backfilled to the level of the original surface. After the flowable-fill has cured, the top surface of the flowable-fill shall be removed and the temporary or permanent surface shall be placed.

        Bridging and cutback requirements as described in these standards may still be required if the street failures indicate a clear need.

        Repair of failed trenches will be the responsibility of the party requiring the trench.

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      2. Conventional Backfill (Other Than Flowable Fill)

        When "non flowable-fill" backfill material has been pre-approved by the Engineer, backfill in existing or proposed streets, curbs, gutters, sidewalks and alleys is divided into three (3) categories: initial, intermediate and final lifts as defined below:

        1. The INITIAL LIFT, designated as Class B and generally comprised of a washed, clean gravel material, consists of the section from the bottom of the excavation to a point six to twelve (6 - 12) inches above the top of the installation. Placement and compaction of the initial layer shall be as specified by the utility to protect their installation.

        2. The INTERMEDIATE LIFT, generally comprised of native material, consists of the section above the initial layer to a point within six (6) inches of the ground level or the bottom of the pavement section whichever is greater.

          Excavated material may be used in the intermediate layer provided that it is deemed suitable by the Engineer.

        3. The FINAL LIFT includes both road base and asphalt surfacing. Road base material shall be CDOT Class 5 or 6 aggregate base course or as specified by the Engineer.

          Maximum dry density of all soil types used will be determined in accordance with AASHTO T 99 or AASHTO T 180. These densities will be determined prior to placement of backfill.

          When a hydro-hammer or drop hammer compaction machine is used for compaction of fill in trenches, the maximum layer shall be 30 inches.

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      3. Compaction Testing Requirements

        See "Testing" section.

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      4. Embankment and Slopes

        1. The Engineer shall approve all fill material.

        2. All cut slopes shall conform to OSHA standards.

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    8. Restoration

      1. Bore Holes - Vertical and Horizontal

        1. For openings less than or equal to 6" in diameter, bore holes shall be filled with patching material (cold mix is not acceptable) to prevent entry of moisture. Patching material used shall be in all cases compatible with the existing surface. Subgrade shall be replaced with flowable fill to provide necessary support to the surface. The sealing of bore holes is the responsibility of the Contractor or persons making the bore.

        2. For openings greater than 6" in diameter, the limits of repair shall be identified in the permit.

        3. The completed job shall be flush with the surrounding pavement and have no indentations, pockets, or recesses that may trap and hold water.

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      2. Subgrade

        The subgrade for the pavement structure shall be graded to conform to the cross sections and profile required by the construction plans. Prior to the placement of aggregate base course or sub-course, the subgrade should be properly prepared. The subgrade should be scarified to a minimum depth of six (6) inches, moisture adjusted as necessary, and recompacted to not less than the following:

        1. For cohesive soils, 90% maximum Modified Proctor dry density at 2% of optimum moisture content, or 95% maximum Standard Proctor dry density at 2% of optimum moisture content.

        2. For non-cohesive soils, 92% maximum Modified Proctor dry density at 2% of optimum moisture content, or 97% maximum Standard Proctor dry density at 2% of optimum moisture content.

        3. For expansive soils, 88% maximum Modified Proctor dry density at 3% or greater above optimum moisture content, or 93% maximum Standard Proctor dry density at 1% or greater above optimum moisture content. For highly expansive soils (swell potential 2% under 200 psf surcharge pressure), paving will not be permitted without a subgrade treatment approved by the Engineer.

        Prior to approval to place the base or sub-base course, all utility main and service trenches shall be compacted to not less than the above referenced densities required for the given soil classification. This density requirement also applies to all utility trenches within the public rights-of-way from a point four (4) feet beyond the edge of asphalt and descending at 1:1 outward.

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      3. Asphalt Surfacing

        Any damage, even superficial, to the existing asphalt surface in the vicinity of the work shall be repaired at the expense of the Contractor, including but not limited to gouges, scrapes, outrigger marks, backhoe bucket marks, etc. A slurry seal type covering will be considered the minimum repair. Patching may be required, at the discretion of the Local Entity.

        1. The depth of asphalt patches in asphalt streets shall typically be the depth of the existing asphalt surface plus two (2) inches or as specified by the Engineer.

        2. The asphalt patch area for street excavations that fall within the wheel path of the vehicular travel lane shall be increased in size to the center of the lane or adjacent lane. In no circumstance will the edge of a patch area be allowed to fall within the wheel path.

        All street cuts shall be patched as per the guidelines of Section 4 below.

        In streets that are less then five (5) years old the Local Entity reserves the right to deny any street excavation or require repairs that are over and above these specifications.

        EXCEPTIONS - There may be situations where the patching standards are considered inappropriate. For example, rebuilding half of a road today when we know the road is due for reconstruction at a different profile in 2-3 years. In these cases, the Permit Holder can provide a more modest patch adequate to accommodate traffic for the 2-3 year period. In addition, the Permit Holder may be required to make a financial contribution to the street maintenance, rehabilitation or reconstruction program to support the more permanent improvements that are anticipated. This determination shall be made by the Engineer.

        DISPUTE RESOLUTION - Mutual acceptance of these guidelines is expected to evolve over time with experience in the field. Disagreements over requirements and cost sharing are inevitable. In cases where agreement cannot be reached, the dispute shall not deter the Contractor from compliance to the specific Permit or guidelines provided by this document unless approved by the Engineer.

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      4. Concrete Surfacing and Patching

        The concrete pavement shall be replaced with 4,000 psi concrete to match the finish and thickness of the existing pavement, but not less than eight (8) inches thick. All concrete construction shall be protected from vehicular traffic, including contractor vehicles, until the concrete has achieved eighty (80) percent of its ultimate strength. Concrete shall be coated and sealed with a uniform application of membrane curing compound applied in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.

        The use of quick curing concrete (3000 psi strength within 48 hours) shall be used on all arterial and collector streets when repair areas are less than 500 square feet or when temperatures are below 40° F. Quick curing concrete repairs may be opened to traffic within two (2) days or when the concrete has achieved eighty (80) percent of its ultimate strength.

        Where existing cracks or damage are adjacent to the area being repaired the repair area shall include the cracked or damaged concrete. Pavement repairs shall include all areas of damage, including leak test holes, pot holes, equipment and/or material scaring of the exiting surface.

        When repairing concrete, removal perimeter shall be sawcut and replacement concrete shall be doweled into the old concrete as directed by the Engineer.

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      5. Joint Filling

        Asphalt

        Following placement of the asphalt surface, the joints where the new asphalt abuts the old shall be sealed with a fog or painted coat of bitumen cement.

        Concrete

        Joints shall be thoroughly cleaned of all foreign material then filled with a hot-poured elastic type joint filler conforming to M 173, ASTM D1190-80 or ASTM D1751-83, D1752-84, D3405-78, D3406-78, D3407-78 or silicone sealants or others as approved by the Engineer. Joint material shall be filled to within 1/2 inch of the surface. Excess material shall be scraped off to provide a smooth riding surface.

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  4. DEVELOPING A "QUALITY" APPROACH TO STREET REPAIRS

    1. General

      Every street and street repair situation is unique. Design criteria and construction standards cannot address every situation but, in order to maintain some form of consistency, these standards have been developed. In most cases, they provide the minimum acceptable standards for construction or repair. Consequently, when strictly applied, they will provide the minimum acceptable product. Therefore, this criteria has been developed to maintain the same integrity of the street pavement and subsurface condition prior to its being cut for utility installations.

      To achieve the goal of "Quality" or "Excellence" in street repairs, then these criteria shall be viewed as guidelines when used in conjunction with good planning and judgment. This will restore the street to an acceptable condition with minimal patching failures. In most cases, it will be necessary to exceed the minimum standards to achieve a quality repair.

      Issues that shall be considered in a quality approach to street repairs are as follows (these criteria must all be balanced against the long-term maintenance needs of the utility):

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    2. Appearance

      Does the final appearance of the street suggest the repairs were planned, or that they happened by accident?

      1. Consciously or not, the driving public "rates" the appearance of the street system, including street repairs, every day. Street repairs which are satisfactory from a functional point of view may produce a negative reaction from the public if they give the appearance of being poorly planned or executed.

      2. The public's perception of street repairs is based primarily on shape, size, and orientation -- the geometry of a patch. Here are some guidelines for the geometry of a quality patch:
        1. Existing pavements should be removed to clean, straight lines parallel and perpendicular to the flow of traffic. Do not construct patches with angled sides and irregular shapes.

        2. Avoid patches within existing patches. If this cannot be avoided, make the boundaries of the patches coincide.

        3. Do not "leave" strips of pavement less than one-half lane in width from the edge of the new patch to the edge of an existing patch or the lip of the gutter.

        4. In concrete pavements, remove sections to existing joints in the case of concrete in good repair. In damaged concrete, the limits of removal should be determined in the field by a representative of the Engineer.


        5. Asphalt and concrete pavements should be removed by saw cutting or grinding. Avoid breaking away the edges of the existing pavement or damaging the remaining pavement with heavy construction equipment.

        6. In the case of a series of patches or patches for service lines off a main trench, repair the pavement over the patches by grinding and overlay when the spacing between the patches is less than 75 feet (in cases where the existing pavement is in poor condition and may require overlay within the next few years, this requirement may be modified or waived by the Engineer).

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    3. Rideability

      Are the transitions on and off of the repair smooth? Does the patch itself offer a smooth ride? Are the joints located outside of the normal wheel path?

      1. Completed street repairs should have rideability at least as good as, if not better than, the pavement prior to the repairs. A driver may be able to see a street repair, but in the case of a quality repair, he/she should not be able to "feel" it in driving normally down the street.

      2. Do not place overlays with feathered edges on streets of any classification. Overlays should be placed by first removing the existing pavement to the desired depth by grinding, and then placing the pavement flush with the adjacent surfaces.

      3. Surface tolerances for street repairs should meet the standard for new construction. That is, the finished surface of the street repair, when tested with a ten (10) foot straightedge parallel to the centerline or perpendicular across joints, will show variations measured from the testing face of the straightedge to the surface of the street repair which do not exceed one-quarter (1/4) inch.

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    4. Pavement Management

      Is the repair consistent with the long-term pavement management strategy for the particular street?

      1. Street repairs should leave a pavement in a condition at least as good as, if not better than, the condition prior to the repairs.

      2. In most cases, and particularly in the cases of extensive excavation and repairs, it is desirable to survey the existing pavement condition with a representative of the Local Entity prior to the work. After completion of the work, survey the pavement condition again to verify that the pavement condition has been maintained or improved.

        1. In the case of minor repairs, these pavement surveys can be made by visual observation.

        2. However, in the case of major projects that involve excessive haul of materials or unusually heavy construction equipment or activity, non-destructive testing of the pavement condition before and after construction is required.

      3. Consideration of pavement management issues may also identify opportunities for joint efforts between the utilities and the Local Entity.

        For example, suppose the repair of a utility line requires an overlay on half of a street, and that the condition of the remaining half of the street might also warrant an overlay. We may decide at that point to overlay the entire street, with Local Entity's street authority and the utility splitting the cost of the overlay. In such a case, the utility may be able to save the cost of grinding half the street. The Local Entity's street authority will allocate a reasonable percentage of their annual overlay program to accommodate their share of these situations. This includes minor (2-3 block) maintenance projects and larger capital improvement projects (major water line extension). Coordination for these types of cooperative repairs should occur as far in advance of actual construction as possible.

        1. Transverse patches on arterial and collector streets shall be overlaid across the entire street width for a distance of two (2) feet minimum on all sides of the trench.


          b. Do not allow the edges of patches to fall in existing wheel paths. The edges of patches parallel to the direction of traffic shall be limited to the boundaries of lanes or to the centerline of travel lanes.

          c. Patches should have a smooth longitudinal grade consistent with the existing roadway. Patches should also have a cross slope or cross section consistent with the design of the existing roadway.

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    5. Future Maintenance

      Will the repair pose any future maintenance problems or make future maintenance more difficult?

      1. Excavations and street repairs, even well constructed street repairs, shorten a pavement's life. Several types of street distress, settlement, alligator cracking, and potholes, often show up around patches. Quality street repairs should attempt to reduce the occurrence of these types of distress.

      2. Avoid weakening or destroying the existing pavement around an excavation with heavy construction equipment, stockpiling or delivery of materials, etc. When damage does occur, remove the damaged pavement, extending the limits of the street repair, before replacing the pavement. Remember, no stockpiling of backfill or road building materials is permitted on the pavement.

        1. When the proposed excavation falls within ten feet of a section of failed pavement, the failed area shall be removed to sound pavement and patched. Scarring, gouging, or other damaged pavement adjacent to a patch shall be removed and the pavement repaired.

        2. In the case of older pavement where the likelihood of cracking and potholes next to the patch is greater, it may be necessary to extend the "shoulders" of the pavement beyond the two-foot minimum, and reinforce this area with a geotextile. "T" cutting is required for all repairs.

        3. For patches in asphalt, a tack coat shall be applied to all edges of the existing asphalt before placing the new pavement. After placing the new asphalt, all seams (joints) between the new and existing pavements shall be sealed with an asphalt tack coat or rubberized crack seal material.

        4. Avoid frequent changes in width of patches. For future maintenance, this simplifies removal of adjacent pavement failures.

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  5. TESTING

    1. Description

      The contractor is required to provide material testing for each phase of the work and at no cost to the Local Entity. The Independent Geotechnical Testing Firm chosen to perform this work for the Contractor must be qualified and identified on the Permit application.

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    2. Testing Frequencies

      1. The number of density tests required may be increased if directed by the Engineer. The costs of any testing, as required, shall be borne by the Contractor. Proctors shall be determined prior to backfilling. Independent lab results shall be faxed to the Local entity as soon as possible. The horizontal frequencies of density tests are as follows:

        1. Utility Mains - One test per 100 linear feet per lift.

        2. Service Lines - One test per each service per per lift.

        3. Manholes and valve boxes per each lift.

      2. Following are the minimum number of tests required for each construction activity. These tests must be submitted to the Engineer on a daily basis as acquired and shall be hand delivered or faxed to the Local Entity.

        1. Native or imported backfill - One (1) test for every two (2) vertical feet and every one hundred (100) feet horizontally, or some fraction thereof with at least one (1) test per each lift.

        2. Flowable-fill - Testing may be required at the discretion of the Engineer.

        3. Concrete pavement, curbs, gutters and sidewalks - Testing to be conducted for every 100 cubic yards or portion thereof, with a minimum of one. The types of testing required shall be as prescribed by each Local Entity.

        4. Asphalt Pavement

          1. Asphalt content - One test per 500 tons or fraction thereof of mix produced, minimum of one test per job.

          2. Gradation - Aggregate: one test per 500 tons or fraction thereof of mix produced, minimum of one test per job.

          3. In-place density - One test per 500 tons or fraction thereof of mix placed, minimum of one test per job.

        5. Aggregate base course materials -One test per 400 lane feet. No less than two (2) tests per excavation.

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  6. INSPECTION

    All construction work within the public rights-of-way shall be subject to inspection by the Engineer and certain types of work may have continuous inspection. It shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to provide safe access for the inspector to perform the required inspections.

    It shall be the responsibility of the person performing the work authorized by the Permit to notify the Engineer or his authorized representatives that such work is ready for inspection. The Engineer requires that every request for inspection is to be received at least twenty-four (24) hours before such inspection is desired. Such requests may be in writing or by telephoning or faxing the Engineer.

    The Engineer may make or require other inspections of any work as deemed necessary to ascertain compliance with the provisions of these Guidelines or the Local Entity's Street Design and Construction Standards, or Municipal Code. Any work performed without the required inspections shall be subject to removal and replacement at the Contractor's expense, regardless of the quality of the work.

    Where large scale projects exceed the ability of the Local Entity to provide inspection, the contractor or utility company will incur the cost of a private inspection firm. This inspection firm will be mutually agreed upon by the Permit applicant and the Local Entity prior to issuance of the Permit.

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APPENDIX A

LOCAL ENTITY CONTACT PERSON


ENTITY

NAME AND/OR TITLE

ADDRESS

PHONE NUMBERS

Larimer County Marc Lyons
Access and Utility Coordinator
Larimer County Engineering Dept.
200 W. Oak Street, Suite 3000
P.O. Box 1190
Fort Collins, CO 80522-1190
Voice: (970) 498-5709
Fax: (970) 498-7986
City of Fort Collins
Construction Inspector
City of Fort Collins Engineering. Dept.
P.O. Box 580
Fort Collins, CO 80522
Voice: (970) 221-6605
Fax: (970) 221-6378
City of Loveland George Miller
Associate Traffic Engineer
City of Loveland Traffic Section
105 W. 5th St.
Loveland, CO 80537
Voice: (970) 962-2516
Fax: (970) 962-2907
Town of Berthoud Kent Kuster Town of Berthoud
228 Welch Ave.
P.O. Box 1229
Berthoud, CO 80513
Voice: (970) 532-2643
Fax: (970) 532-2643
Town of Estes Park Greg Sievers
Construction and
Public Facilities Manager
Town of Estes Park
170 MacGregor Ave.
P.O. Box 1200
Estes Park, CO 80517
Voice: 970) 586-5331
Fax: (970) 586-6909
Colorado Dept.
of Transportation
Utilities Section
Henry Rangel
Utilities Coordinator
Colorado Dept. of Transportation
1420 2nd St.
Greeley, CO 80531
Voice: (970) 350-2111
Fax: (970) 350-2179

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Background Image: Rocky Mountain National Park by Sue Burke. All rights reserved.